W3 Info Tec

Copyright © 1994-2003, Daniel Frankl, Ph.D.


C The C & C++ programming languages replaced the earlier B version (also see BASIC [Beginner's All Symbolic Instruction Code]).

Cache Memory card where frequently used data is stored (cache cards are inserted into cache slots on a motherboard).

CAD Computer-Aided Drafting/ Design software (e.g., 3D Home Architect, Visio etc...).

CALC Customer Access Line Charge (Fee customer pays to use a phone line; also referred to as EUCLC [End User Common Line Charge, or SLC [Subscriber Line Charge]).

CAM Computer-Aided Manufacturing software

CAP Carefree Access Pricing or Competitive Access Provider (a capped price for unlimited Internet access; Carefree access charge by most ISPs [Internet Service Providers]) is currently, March 2000, set at $10.00-$20.00 a month; free access is also available).

Carder Individual specializing in stealing credit card information and using it illegally over the Internet

CARL Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries (electronic information system)

CAS Communications Applications S pecifications (Intel & DCA corporations' joint venture communications standard).

CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering

CASAIL Computer Assisted Systematic Analysis of Instruction and Learning (CASAIL™ is based on the ALT-PE [Academic Learning Time--Physical Education] model for the evaluation of teacher and student performance in a classroom or during a field session; concept by Daniel Frankl, Ph.D., CSLA, and programming in Visual Basic 4.0 Professional Edition, by Tony Wu, B.S.).

CAST Center for Applied Technology (see: www.cast.org/)

CAV Constant Angular Velocity (combined with CLV [Constant L inear Velocity] this thechnology allows a steady 16X rotational speed on a CD ROM drive).

CAVE Computer Automatic Virtual Environment (stereoscopic classroom).

CBL Common Business LLanguage (based on EDI -- [Electronic Data Interchange]).

CBR (1) Case-Based Reasoning (pre-programmed answers to a host of case specific questions)
(2) Constant Bit Rate.

CBT Computer Based Training.

CCC Copyright Clearance Center

CCD Charged Couple Device (video cameras' technology)

CCE Control Creation Edition (VB [Visual Basic] 5.0)

CCITT Consultative Committee for I nternational Telephone and Telegraph (Based in Geneva, this branch of the ITU [I nternational Telecommunications Union] develops standards for modems).

CCPP Committee on Computers & P ublic Policy (Part of the ACM [A ssociation for Computing Machinery]; also see FRPC&RS).

CD Compact Disk (a highly dense storage medium that uses laser beams to read data recorded on it).

CDA Communications Decency Act as of 1995 (When/if the CDA becomes law, information made available on the Internet that is perceived as "indecent" by some DA may expose it's author to criminal charges).

CD Audio Compact disk or CD ROM based analog sound signal

CDF Channel Definition Format.

CDFS CD-ROM [Compact Disk, Read-Only Memory] File System.

CDG Courseware Development Group (similar to WebCT, Blackboard, and Academic Systems – which all are web portals for on-line instruction)

CD-I Compact Disk-Interactive.

CDMA Code Division Multiple Access

CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data network. (PocketNet phone that combines a cellular phone with a built-in wireless modem that allows the transfer of e-mail and text only Web based information).

CDR CorelDraw (graphic design software that uses vector-based images).

CD-R Recordable Compact Disk drive (may be used for data storage purposes and /or software back-ups; 640 MB of storage space).

A special drive on a computer that lets the user run CD-ROM (compact disk, read- only memory) programs. A CD-ROM is a highly dense storage medium (640 MB) that uses laser beams to read data recorded on them.

CDS Centre de Documentation pour le Sport (Canadian Sport Discuss--see SIRC/CDS)

CDT Center for Democracy and Technology (nonprofit organization for the protection of free speech and privacy rights)

CDT Cognate Data Technologies (manufacturer of communication cards EISA standard compatible)

CEG Continuous Edge Graphics (1994 graphics card that is designed to reach the capacity of 740,000 colors simultaneously displayed on the monitor).

CERN Centre Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (The European Center for Nuclear Research was the high energy research center where physicists conceptualized the World Wide Web in order to facilitate the exchange information with colleagues all over the world)

CERT Computer Emergency Response Team (group of computer experts that combines efforts to expose and stop hackers that engage in criminal activity through the use of computers).

CETL Center for Effective Teaching and Learning (CSLA).

CFAA Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (U.S.A., 1986)

CFC Chlorofluorocarbon (toxic compound).

CG Continuous-Grain silicon (LCD monitor technology)

CGA Color Graphics Adapter

CGI Common Gateway Interface (A short program that instructs a server how to handle information entered by a user. CGI scripts may be written in a number of programming languages, e.g., PERL [Practical Extraction & Report Language]).

.cgm Computer Graphics Metafile file extension (uses vector-based images)

channel The path between a sender and receiver (two PCS, e.g.,) that carries one stream of data.

Character Any single symbol (e.g., @, #, $, &...), number (1, 2, 3...), and or letter (a, b, c...).

A program relying on text, rather than graphics, for interaction with the user. It is traditionally used with DOS applications, especially older ones.

Topic related discussion groups on the Net. To join a discussion group on the Net one needs access to a PC or server that supports a chat service format, e.g., IRC [Internet Relay Chat].

Records in a hierarchical database are organized in nodes. A parent node is connected to a number of child nodes. For example, statistics for a soccer team's season's performance may include specific games and specific player performance on a variety of match-related skills or nodes, such as, shots-on goal, interceptions, completed passes, etc...).

CHK Check command file or .chk DOS command file extension, e.g., CHK DSK (DOS command to check disk).

Chunk A data block (a 512-byte sector is the smallest data chunk on a hard drive; a data chunk DOS uses to communicate with a hard drive consists of a number of sectors called a cluster)

Chunking A web designer's method of breaking large blocks of information into smaller concise segments that are easier to read and better fit a standard computer screen.

CIC Creative Incentive Coalition (a group whose mission is to protect copyrighted materials on the Internet; for more info. See: www.cic.org)

CICS Customer Information Control System.

CIDR Classless Inter-Domain Routing addressing (allows the acquisition of an arbitrary block of consecutive addresses when supported by your ISP [Internet Service Provider])

CIM CompuServe Information Manager (e.g., Win CIM 1.4)

CIMS Computer Industry Media Study (Internet advertizing; for more details, see: research@mecklermedia.com)

CIO Cisco Information Online (derived from the city name 'San Francisco')

CIS Compuserve Information Service (Internet access provider).

CISC Complex(?) Instruction-Set Computer (also see RISC [Reduced Instruction-Set Computer]).

CLF Common Log Format

Client In the context of client/server exchanges, the client is a PC or a software application that requests information from a server (another computer or program).

Program that contain embedded objects from other OLE-aware [Object Linking & Embedding] programs.

Client Area Area contained within the borders drawn by Windows for an application that is running within Windows.

Clipboard A transient data storing space that holds (Copied and/or Cut) images or text for immediate or later transfer between Windows applications.

The NSA [National Security Agency] introduced in 1993 a fingernail-size chip--the "Clipper Chip"--which scrambles communications to assure security and privacy on the Information Super Highway. The catch to this chip is the fact that "Uncle Sam" has the code and thus can listen in.

Clicking Quick depression & release of the mouse button while pointer is positioned in a specific spot on the monitor.

Clock Electric circuit in a PC that forms electrical pulses that coordinate circuit operations.

.clp Clipboard file extension

CLRIT The Commission on Learning Resources and Instructional Technology (established by CSU's former system Chancellor Munitz)

CLSB Creative Labs Sound Blaster (Sound Blaster standard for PC compatible audio).

Cluster Several sectors of data on a hard drive ranging in size from 2K to 32K. Hard drive partition size of 512MB-8GB has a 4K cluster size. Partition sizes of 8+ -16GB, 16+ -32GB, and 32+ GB have an 8, 16 and 32K cluster size.

CLV Constant Linear Velocity (combined with CAV [Constant Angular Velocity] this technology allows a steady 16X rotational speed on a CD ROM drive)

CML Chemical Markup Language

CMMS Computer Mediated Multimedia Systems

CMOS Completely Metal Oxide Semiconductor.

CMOS RAM Completely Metal Oxide Silicon (Battery powered memory chip that preserves system set-up, date & time information when PC is turned off).

CMS Kodak precision Color Management System that facilitates color consistency from scanner to printer.

CMYK Cyan, Magenta, Yellow & Black (color scheme for "true" Laser Printers)

CND Caldera Networked Desktop (uses Linux OS [Operating System]).

C.N.E. Certified Netware Engineer (Novel Training Certificated Program)

CNI Coalition for Networked Information (higher education Internet2 affiliated organization)

COBOL COmmon Business-Oriented Language.

Code Language, as in program code or programming language.

"Code Red" A worm that infects and overloads NT and Win 2000 servers by taking advantage of its defective IIS [Internet Information Services] web server software (can be readily fixed with free software from Microsoft).

"Code Red II" A worm similar to "Code Red" that infects and overloads NT and Win 2000 servers by taking advantage of its defective IIS [Internet Information Services] web server software (can be readily fixed with free software from Microsoft). Red Code II is more destructive since in addition to overloading network systems it also reboots the server and leaves an open "back door" through which a hacker could access or control the infected system.

Coding The process of writing a computer program.

As the saturation level of colors increases it produces more vivid pictures (printer technology).

COM Component Object Model (replacing OLE [Object Linking & Embedding],VB 4.0 Professional Edition; also see DCOM)

.com COMmand file extension of an MS-DOS Program file.

.com commercial Internet domain code. The most common domain codes are: .edu (Education and Research Institutions), .gov (government related web sites), .net (Network and communications centers), and .org (other, typically non-profit, organizations, e.g., npr.org or pbs.org).

Also called Web storefront creation package is a software package that creates a virtual store within a web site. Site visitors are able to browse, register, load virtual shopping carts with goods and services and pay for the purchases with cyber cash, credit card, or the conventional bank or personal check via snail mail.

A company or shared database containing information on daily company operations.

A company or shared database serving company personel (includes Common Operational Database information and additional sources of information).

Compiler Program that converts source code (procedural language) to the object code (machine language).

Data file in which you embed objects within other embedded objects (storage object); also known as multilevel embedding (OLE inside an OLE [Object Linking & Embedding]).

Compress Files that contain redundant information may be shrunk to a smaller size without losing any vital information in the process. Thus, once decompressed a compressed file includes all the original information.

Crime committed through illegal use of computer technology (most commonly committed by employees using a company PC; also see "Crackers" and "Hackers").

COM Slot COMmunication port on the motherboard where I/O [input/output] cards may be inserted (e.g., COM1, COM2, etc...)

CONFIG.SYS Configure System MS-DOS file (text file that contains commands that arrange and connect the PC's optional device drivers (e.g., hardware components such as memory, keyboard, mouse, printer, sound card, graphics accelerator card, fax/modem etc...).

Netscape's Internet Webcasting technology (Netscape's equivalent to Microsoft's joint venture with PointCast for the delivery of news, e.g., MSNBC, on the Internet)

Controller Video hardware device that provides a fixed set of video acceleration functions (also see Frame Buffer and 32 Bit Coprocessors).

MS-DOS memory that constitutes up to the first 640K of your PC's memory.

Cookies Small programs that visited web sites send to be placed in the visiting PC's hard drive. These programs then track the visitor's activities on the visited site (e.g, number of visits, specific areas and time spent in those areas...). PC activity privacy may be maintained by setting the browser not to accept cookies .

Copland Apple Computer's OS "System 8" to be replaced by NeXT technology OS.

(32 BIT)
Programmable video accelerator that can function in parallel with the host processor.

Copyright (Digital Information) -- see Library of Congress, || Copyright Clearance Center, || Stanford's Copyright and Fair Use Site || and Gopher's Site

CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture (technology that supports WWW based video-on-demand services)

CORDS Copyright Office Electronic Registration, Recordation, and Deposit System (The Library of Congress system for quick verification of copyright status and ownership of "Intellectual Property."

COSE Committee for Open Systems (open-or barrier-free interfaces; e.g., Sbus & NFS [Network File System] from Sun).

.cpi Character set--Code-Page Information--information file/DOS extension.

CP/M Control Program for Micro

C-Print computer-assisted speech-to-print transcription system (employs a typist to enter both instructor's lecture and student comments into a laptop for simultaneous display on a separate monitor so that students with a hearing impairment can read and follow communications that take place in the classroom)

CPU Central Processing Unit (The microprocessor chip or the "cortex" of a PC. For a Windows environment, an Intel chip 286, 386, 486 or Pentium; for a Windows NT environment any of a number of Intel or RISC Reduced-Instruction-Set Computer] processor chips).

Crack Software designed to check password security by trying to break (crack) a set of passwords, e.g., user name + user ID found in password files on networks (for more information see: ftp://cert.org/pub/tools/crack/

Craker Unlike the "Hacker" who finds pleasure in the challenge of unauthorized entry into computer systems, the cracker uses illegal access for damaging criminal activity (the difference between "hackers" and "crackers," however, does NOT make hacking "cool").

CRC Cyclic Redundancy Checking (a sending and receiving modem data transmission error detection technique)

CREN Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (higher education Internet2 related organization)

C-RET Color Resolution Enhanced Technology (HP color printers)

A feature in Project Management Software that outlines the "critical path" or the series of tasks that require the most time to accomplish.

CR/LF Carriage Return/Line Feed (Two special reserved characters utilised by DOS to indicate a new line in a text field or text file).

Crossposting Sending message to several different news groups that share a common interest in that message. Crossposting is different from "spam" in that a viewer of a crossposted message in one group will not that message again while visiting the other groups
CRT Cathode Ray Tube (flat-square and vertically flat cathodes in monitors; also see FST [Flat-Square Cathode Ray Tube]).

CSDV Circuit Switched Data and Voice (ISDN [Integrated Services Digital Network] B-channel configuration)

CSLIP Compressed SLIP [Serial Line Internet Protocol] allows a faster transfer of information on the Web.

CSM Combined Symbol Matching (fax compression technology invented by Compression Labs--the fax is compressed right before transmission and then decompressed as it is displayed. Compressed faxes are transmitted in significantly shorter times and thus cost less).

CSS Cascading Style Sheets

.csv comma separated variables (ASCII [American Standard Code for Information Interchange] file extension)

CT (1) Computer Technology
(2) Computer Telephony

CTC (1) Computer Technology Consultant
(2) Cornell Theory Center

CTEI Computer Telephony-Enabled Internet.

CTI (1) Computer Telephone I ntegration ("soft phone" software allows MS-Windows-based PCs to perform standard telephone functions).
(2) Compile-Time Instrumentation technology (software feature by Nu-Mega Technologies Inc., that automatically detects errors in code language for Windows developers).

CTS Clear To Send (or RTS Request to Send)

CUL "C" (see) "U" (you) later (E-mail acronym)

Also known as RSI [Repetitive Strain Injury] and/or Repetitive Motion Injury, is the wear and tear on wrist, neck, hand and arm resulting from fast highly repetitive motor action.

Current Number of electrons passing through a given point (measured in AMPERES -- one ampere is the equivalent of 6.28 * 10[18] electrons traveling through a given point in one second).

Electronic cash, e-cash, or digital cash are all synonyms for currency that is handled over the Internet.

Netiquette, or etiquette rules for behavior while on the internet (e.g., read group FAQs [Frequently Asked Questions] before asking questions as you join a discussion group on the Net; do not try to dominate a forum etc...).

Internet environment where PCs from all over the world can through modems and telephone line connections share information and communicate (term erroneously attributed to former vice president Al Gore was actually coined by William Gibson in 1982).

Cyrix CPU [Central Processing Unit] chip manufacturer; see the Cyrix-History page for more information (also see AMD, Intel & NexGEN).

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Page updated: Jan. 08, 2003